logos (Ancient Greek: λόγος, from λέγω lego "I say") The underlying principles of a system.
Logos is not only the blueprints for the construction of thought; but also,as in jokes and sarcasm, the hammers and chisels, as is metaphor, the ruler and jig.
The writing of Wikipedia:Heraclitus (c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was the first place where the word logos was given special attention in ancient Greek philosophy, although Heraclitus seems to use the word with a meaning not significantly different from the way in which it was used in ordinary Greek of his time. For Heraclitus, logos provided the link between rational discourse and the world's rational structure.
"This logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep."Diels-Kranz 22B1
"For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although the logos is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding."Diels-Kranz 22B2
"Listening not to me but to the logos it is wise to agree that all things are one." Diels-Kranz 22B50}}
An independent existence of a universal logos was clearly suggested by Heraclitus.
- F.E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms, New York University Press, 1967.
- W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962, pp. 419ff.
- The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Translations from Richard D. McKirahan, Philosophy before Socrates, Hackett, 1994.
- W. K. C. Guthrie, The Greek Philosophers: From Thales to Aristotle, Methuen, 1967, p. 45.